Ministry of Hemp

Ministry of Hemp

America's leading advocate for hemp

Tag: Cannabinoids

Terpenes: Everything You Need to Know About These Scented Wonders

Terpenes give hemp and cannabis, along with many other plants from citrus fruits to lavender, their unique scents. They offer unique benefits too, especially paired with cannabinoids like CBD and THC.

Terpenes are natural compounds found in all forms of hemp and cannabis that give the plant its bouquet of smells.

In addition, terpenes work in concert with the better known compounds found in the plant such as the cannabinoids THC and CBD to provide their own unique health benefits.

One reason we enjoy writing about hemp is the opportunity to learn new cannabinoid science and then get to share it with our readers. We’ve said it before, but it bears repeating, there really is so much more to the cannabis plant than just CBD and THC.

Of course, both of these two cannabinoids, along with the other hundred or so cannabinoids, are instrumental in the healing and feel better properties of the cannabis plant. But increasingly researchers believe other parts of the hemp plant work synergistically with the cannabinoids to maximize the healing properties, Today’s article focuses on one of those parts: terpenes. While all forms of hemp contain terpenes, some are especially prevalent in psychoactive cannabis (“marijuana”), which we’ve noted below.

WHAT ARE TERPENES?

Cannabis isn’t the only plant that produces terpenes. According to Wikipedia, terpenes “are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers.” Terpenes give these plants their unique scents and assist plants in a variety of ways.

Terpenes attract pollenating insects for plant reproduction. They also ward off or even kill predators. They slow plant maturation and regulate metabolism. Terpenes are a major component of plants’ essential oils. Aromatherapy treatments frequently use terpenes due to their medicinal properties. Some terpenes develop because of stress to a plant, like excessive heat.

The exact number of terpenes found in the cannabis plant ranges between 100-200 depending on different variations in scientific classification.

A woman smells a lemon from her refrigerator. Limonene is a terpene that creates the unique smell of citrus fruits.

Limonene is a terpene that creates the unique smell of citrus fruits.

For example, the popular terpene limonene gives citrus fruits their unique smells. It is found in both lemons and oranges, but in different concentrations thus creating a different scent, or variations.

Here we discuss nine primary terpenes found in hemp and share the healing properties of each.

DIFFERENT TERPENES EXPLAINED

Below, we look at 9 of the most prominent terpenes: mycerne, limonene, carophyllene, pinene (Alpha/Beta), terpineol, borneol, linalool, eucalyptol, and nerolidol.

Mycerne

Mycerne is the most common terpene found in hemp. In some strains, over 60% of the essential oil is made up of mycerne. It smells very similar to cloves. Scientists consider myrcene a potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antibiotic.

Mycerne blocks cytochrome, aflatoxin B, and other pro-mutagenic carcinogens. It has a relaxing, calming, anti-spasmodic, and sedative effect. Myrcene works synergistically with THC and may also increase the psychoactive potential.

The essential oil of  citrus fruits contains high levels of myrcene. Many claim that eating a mango 45 minutes before consuming psychoactive cannabis results in a faster onset and greater intensity.

Limonene

Limonene is often the second, third or fourth terpene found in cannabis resin and produces the smell we find in citrus fruits. Like mycerne, limonene contains anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, and anti-carcinogenic properties. It is also said to protect against Aspergillus and other carcinogens found in smoke.

Even more, a cancer study from 2013 revealed that terpene reduces tumors in women with early-stage breast cancer. Limonene quickly and easily penetrates the blood barrier, which increases systolic pressure. What’s more, some experts say limonene increases attention, mental focus, well-being, and sex drive.

Citrus fruit rinds, rosemary, juniper, peppermint, and several pine needle oils all contain limonene.

Caryophyllene

Many herbs and spices contain caryophyllene. Black pepper contains high amounts, giving it that spicy flavor.

As with the previous two terpenes, caryophyllene has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-fungal properties. It has affinity for our bodies’ CB2 receptors making it a common ingredient for anti-inflammatory topicals and creams. Topical application of caryophyllene also relieves toothaches.

A cluster of peppercorns.

The terpene Caryophyllene gives black pepper its spicy scent. It also has anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory properties.

One interesting note about this terpene is its promising role in alcohol rehabilitation. In a study on mice, scientists found that caryophyllene reduces the voluntary intake of alcohol.

In addition to black pepper, Thai basils, cloves, and cinnamon leaves have caryophyllene. Lavender also produces caryophyllene in small quantities.

Pinene

Pinene, as the name implies, creates the smell associated with pine and fir trees. Doctors use pinene in medicines as an expectorant, bronchodilator, anti-inflammatory and local antiseptic. Pinene also improves concentration, personal satisfaction, and energy. Patients suffering from arthritis, Crohn’s Disease, and cancer may benefit from pinene.

A unique fact about pinene: Smoking cannabis with high levels of Pinene may give the sensation of sucking more air, which can lead to coughing or hyperventilation.

Many conifers and non-coniferous plants, balsamic resin, pinewoods, and some citrus fruits produce pinene.

Terpineol

Terpineol smells of lilacs, crabapple, blossoms, and lime blossoms. Plants with high-levels of pinene often also produce terpineol. If you’ve ever enjoyed Lapsang souchong tea, part of the flavor came from the terpineol in the pine smoke used during processing.

Terpineol creates a sedative effect often connected to indica strains of psychoactive cannabis. During tests on mice, terpineol reduced mobility by 45 percent. Experts also believe terpineol has antibiotic and antioxidant properties.

Commercial producers of terpineol often derive this terpene from Monterey cypress trees.

Borneol

Borneol smells like mint and camphor. Chinese herbalists use borneol in medicines against fatigue, stress, lingering illness.

Some researchers believe this terpene’s natural insect repellent properties and could be used against diseases caused by ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes such as West Nile Virus. One study published even show that borneol kills breast cancer cells.

Linalool

Linalool has a floral smell similar to lavender and spring flowers. It is currently being used in the treatment of various cancers.

Linalool has a calming action, antianxiety, and produces sedative effects. Linalool is responsible for the sedative effects of certain psychoactive cannabis strains. In tests on mice their activity decreased by 75%. It also has analgesic and anti-epileptic properties.

A mug of peppermint tea on a saucer, garnished with fresh mint leaves. Often found in hemp and cannabis, the mint family of plants also produces the terpene

Often found in hemp and cannabis, the mint family of plants also produces the terpene linalool.

Patients suffering from arthritis, depression, seizures, insomnia and cancer have all found relief with this terpene.

The Lamiaceae plant and herb family, which includes mints, laurels, cinnamon, rosewood, and Birch trees, all produce linalool. Linalool is a precursor in the formation of Vitamin E.

Eucalyptol

Eucalyptol is the main ingredient in eucalyptus essential oil. It has a minty smell and found in small amounts in psychoactive cannabis.

Eucalyptol relieves pain, improves concentration, and inner balance. Plants containing eucalyptol enhance meditation and concentration. It is showing promise as a treatment for Alzheimer’s, but it’s still in early stages of research.

The Eucalyptus plant, bay leaves, sage, sweet basil, and cardamom contain notable quantities of eucalyptol.

Nerolidol

Nerolidol has a unique woody and fresh bark aroma. Nerolidol contains anti-fungal, anti-cancer, and anti-malarial properties. It may prevent certain kinds of parasites.

Neroli, ginger, jasmine, lavender, and tea tree oil contain nerolidol.

UNDERSTANDING AND USING TERPENES

Again, these are just some of the most common terpenes found in hemp and cannabis. There are many more. These profiles were summarized from Alchimia and Greencamp, where you you can read more on terpenes.

After reading this article, we hope you understand how the benefits of terpenes and pair so perfectly with the benefits of CBD, and all the other cannabinoids. We hope you start incorporating them into your daily CBD regimen.

Bees pollinate from a field of lavender. If you can't find the terpenes you want in your hemp supplements, you may be able to supplement by adding other natural plants like lavender, which is high in nerolidol.

If you can’t find the terpenes you want in your hemp supplements, you may be able to supplement by adding other natural plants like lavender, which is high in nerolidol.

More and more CBD supplement companies recognize the importance of terpenes and now add different terpenes to their products to supplement those already found in hemp. Some brands even sell terpene concentrates for customers to incorporate on their own.

However, if you’re unable to find the terpenes you want through your local CBD store or online, try looking to a non-cannabis plant type or spice and simply combine with your CBD.  You might not achieve the same synergistic effect as when the terpenes are naturally present, but you should still receive the healing properties of the terpenes themselves and the healing properties of the CBD.

No Comments on Terpenes: Everything You Need to Know About These Scented Wonders

Other Cannabinoids Revisited: More Natural Chemicals Found In Hemp

In this article, we continue our look at other cannabinoids found in hemp and cannabis. This time we examine four more cannabinoids — CBC-a, CBDV, CBG-a, and CBCV — and how they can benefit humanity.

In this article, we continue our look at other cannabinoids found in hemp and cannabis.

In July, we published our first look at different naturally occurring cannabinoids that are less well known than THC and CBD. There, we discussed the benefits of CBG (Cannabigerol), CBC (Cannabichromene), THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin), and CBN (Cannabinol). The article sparked some good discussion on social media and we’re hoping for the same with this one as we follow up with four more cannabinoids of note.

Preliminary research into the various other cannabinoids found in hemp and cannabis reveals that there's more to healing than just THC & CBD. Photo shows a hemp leaf surrounded by beakers of green fluid in a lab.

Preliminary research into the various other cannabinoids found in hemp and cannabis reveals that there’s more to healing than just THC & CBD.

This time, we’re going to discuss CBC-a (Cannabichromenic Acid), CBDV (Cannabidvarin), CBG-a (Cannabigerolic Acid), and CBCV (Cannabichromevarin). While these cannabinoids do show promise, they seem to be a lower priority for researchers. But hopefully, as researchers and scientists continue studying other cannabinoids, more information will become available on these lower tiered compounds.

CANNABICHROMENIC ACID (CBC-A)

The first cannabinoid we’re going to discuss is CBC-a (Cannabichromenic Acid).

CBC-a is the precursor to one of the most highly sought after cannabinoids, CBC (Cannabichromene). Like four other cannabinoids, CBC-A appears in the cannabis plant through decarbing. CBCA is non-psychoactive like CBD and has strong antimicrobial and analgesic (pain-relieving) properties. According to Maximum Yield, the most abundant levels of CBC-a are found in tropical strains of psychoactive cannabis (“marijuana”) with much lower levels found in other types of cannabis. According to current research, plants begin secreting cannabichromenic acid in the early seedling stage, before they create THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol). CBC-a can be converted to CBC through an aging and heating off the acid thru decarboxylation.

CBC-A Benefits:

  • Antimicrobial and analgesic properties
  • Anti-viral and anti-inflammatory

CANNABIDVARIN (CBDV)

Next up is CBDV (Cannabidvarin).

Like CBCA and most other cannabinoids we’ve discussed, CBDV is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid that has a similar makeup to CBD. Cannabis or hemp strains with higher levels of CBD tend to have higher levels of CBDV as well. Currently there hasn’t been much research on CBDV. Preliminary research shows that CBDV reduces nausea and seizures.

A researcher studies a hemp plant in a field. Hemp and cannabis contain numerous other cannabinoids beyond THC & CBD. These include CBC-a, CBDV, and many more.

Hemp and cannabis contain numerous other cannabinoids beyond THC & CBD. These include CBC-a, CBDV, and many more.

CBDV Benefits:

  • Anti-nausea. A study in 2013 by the British Journal of Pharmacology researched the potential of CBDV and THCV’s anti-nausea’s effect on rats’ brains. Researchers concluded that both cannabinoids “may have potential in reducing nausea.” Just by the quote alone, it’s apparent more research needs to be done.
  • Anti-seizures. Initial studies show that CBDV acts in a similar way to anti-convulsive medication Capsaicin, which targets the TRP channels (transient receptor potential channel) to combat the gradual process of brain development epilepsy. In fact, an Italian research team found that both CBDV and Capsaicin dephosphorylated TRPV1. CBDV’s effects on TRP channels are being studied to fully understand this cannabinoids anticonvulsive ability. One pharmaceutical company, GW Pharmaceuticals, is actively developing CBDV products for research in clinical trials. They are currently in a phase 2- trial CBDV product under the name GWP42006 that they’re hoping to be approved in treating adults with epilepsy.

CANNABIGEROLIC ACID (CBG-A)

The next in our list of other cannabinoids is CBG-a (Cannabigerolic Acid).

CBGA is considered the “cannabinoid stem cell.” Without CBGA, the amazing health benefits of THCa/THC, CBDa/CBD, CBCa/CBC, and CBG would not exist! These other cannabinoids form through biosynthesis, where chemicals combine to form new compounds. Studies show that industrial hemp contains high levels of CBGa, with some plants carrying up to 94% CBG!

CBG-A Benefits:

      • Analgesic. CBGa has been found to be an analgesic, meaning it provided pain relief.
      • Anti-bacterial. CBGA delays the growth of new bacteria.
      • Anti-inflammatory. CBGa reduces inflammation systematically.
      • Biosynthesis. Without CBGa the medicinal benefits of the other cannabinoids wouldn’t exist. This is important. So much so that scientists aren’t directly studying this cannabinoid. Instead, funding and research are all going to better understand how the biosynthesis itself works.

CANNABICHROMEVARIN (CBCV)

The last other cannabinoid we’re going to talk about is CBCV (Cannabichromevarin).

A researcher in a lab coat studies the leafy flower top of a hemp plant in a field. Research into other cannabinoids helps us understand how this amazing plant can benefit humanity.

Research into other cannabinoids helps us understand how this amazing plant can benefit humanity.

CBCV was first discovered in 1975 when researchers at the University of Nagasaki in Thailand islolated the compound from the cannabis plant. This cannabinoid is the precursor to Cannabichromene (CBC). Cannabis strains with lower levels of THC and CBD often have higher levels of CBCV.

CBCV Benefits:

  • Anti-convulsive.  One of the major benefits of CBCV is its anticonvulsant properties. Researchers from the Regents of the University of California have a patent on an anticonvulsant drug for infants dealing with seizures. Although the primary compound in the drug is CBD, the University of California mentions both CBCV and CBC in the patent as well.
  • Anandamide (AEA) reuptake inhibitor. Anandamide is a naturally occurring cannabinoid in humans. Researchers found that CBCV blocks Anandamide’s absorption by our brain and keeps it working for longer in our bodies.
  • Very similar medical benefits to CBC, CBCV is a powerful anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, antibiotic, analgesic and antifungal and may be beneficial for patients suffering from:
  1. Chronic pain
  2. Major depression
  3. Inflammation
  4. Cancer
  5. Epileptic seizures
  6. Crohn’s disease
  7. Alzheimer’s disease

WAR ON DRUGS INTERFERES WITH RESEARCH INTO OTHER CANNABINOIDS

In the span of two articles we shared 8 different cannabinoids, plus CBD and THC, which we discuss at great lengths in other articles. That’s 10 of the most researched and medically beneficial cannabinoids!

This time around we weren’t able to go as in-depth as we normally would in these types of articles because there just wasn’t enough information on these other cannabinoids just yet. We know scientists believe there are over 100 cannabinoids in the cannabis plant. Research and funding opportunities are still very limited. Cannabis and hemp are both classified as a Schedule I drug by the Drug Enforcement Administration. This classification means the agency refuses to acknowledge that these plants have any medical benefits, despite the evidence to the contrary.

Until this changes, the war on drugs limits our knowledge of the benefits of these miraculous plants. Fortunately, we believe that this will soon change for the better.

In the meantime, read and get to know the cannabinoids we shared, and learn about how they might help people like you.

 

logo_leaf_dark-grey1

DISCOVER THE TOP CBD BRANDS

The market is getting saturated with many different CBD brands. We’ve compared the top brands to help you with your decision. Check it out.

No Comments on Other Cannabinoids Revisited: More Natural Chemicals Found In Hemp

Cannabinoid Antibiotics: How Hemp & Cannabis Could Help Fight Antibiotic Resistance

In recent decades, society has started to lose its battle against harmful bacteria. However, a new class of antibiotics could be developed in the future that are derived from naturally-occurring compounds found in hemp and cannabis.

Cannabinoid antibiotics could prove to be part of the solution to the threat of antibiotic resistance.

In recent decades, society has started to lose its battle against harmful bacteria. Not only are some types of bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics, but researchers’ efforts to develop new classes of antibiotics have all but ground to a halt.

A study published in the British Journal of Pharmacology in 2011 noted that more than 20 classes of antibiotics were marketed between 1940 and 1962, however just two new classes have emerged since then. This wasn’t always a problem with the development of existing antibiotics proving enough to stave off the threat. Now, antibiotic-resistant bacteria are worryingly common, with gram-negative bacteria a particular concern.

A pharmacist in a lab coat examines bottles of medicine. Though research is only in its preliminary stages, doctors and pharmacists could someday prescribe cannabinoid antibiotics to their patients.

Though research is only in its preliminary stages, doctors and pharmacists could someday prescribe cannabinoid antibiotics to their patients.

However, it’s not all bad news. Preliminary research shows that one set of compounds could help manage the threat of bacteria, and even destroy superbugs such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Developed from hemp and cannabis, cannabinoid antibiotics could be in your future.

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IS BECOMING A ‘MAJOR GLOBAL THREAT’

It’s possible that we could have prevented our antibiotic crisis if we’d used them appropriately. Doctors and patients misuse antibiotics up to 50 percent of the time, according to estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Doctors aren’t always to blame for careless overprescribing. Patients sometimes pressure their GPs for antibiotics and some even self-medicate and buy antibiotics online.

However, there are no long-term benefits to taking antibiotics unnecessarily – even just as a precaution. Overprescribing and overuse just speeds up the rate that bacteria becomes resistant to antibiotics, which could lead to much more serious health issues, for the patient and the general public. The CDC estimates that every year there are more than 70,000 MRSA infections and 9,000 MRSA-related deaths in the US.

Ominously, former World Health Organization director general Dr Margaret Chan labelled antimicrobial resistance a “major global threat” in 2016, with the organization estimating that deaths from antibiotic-resistant infections could reach 10 million a year by 2050.

CANNABINOID ANTIBIOTICS TO THE RESCUE?

The antibiotic potential of cannabis, and therefore cannabinoids, was being studied as early as the 1950s, and the herb has a history of medical use dating back thousands of years to the times of ancient Egypt and ancient China. During the 1950s, cannabis sativa showed promising signs as an antiseptic, but with no individual components of the plant isolated at this stage, there was no way of telling which compounds were helping. It wasn’t until researchers began isolating cannabinoids in the 1960s that cannabis sativa really started to be understood.

Ground-breaking cannabinoid antibiotic research published in 2008 by Giovanni Appendino from the University of Eastern Piedmont and Simon Gibbons the University of London has developed our knowledge of cannabinoids as antibiotics significantly, although there’s still much we don’t know. Researchers aren’t quite sure why cannabinoid antibiotics work. Nor do they know how reliably those antibiotic effects would work in the body.

Most antibiotics target DNA gyrase or fatty acid synthesis, but cannabinoids appear to go after neither. Since the endocannabinoid system remained an unknown until the 1990s, it’s not unusual for us to be in the dark about how cannabinoids interact with the body, although given how effective these compounds are as antibiotics, they likely function in a specific mechanism, according to Gibbons.

A gloved hand holds a beaker containing amber liquid and a dropper, labeled CBD. Some research suggests CBD could be used as an antibiotic in clinical settings. Cannabinoid antibiotics represent the cutting-edge of research.

Some research suggests CBD could be used as an antibiotic in clinical settings. Cannabinoid antibiotics represent the cutting-edge of research.

Several non-psychoactive cannabinoids have displayed antibiotic properties, including cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG). Psychoactive THC has been studied more extensively and appears to have some therapeutic effects that other cannabinoids haven’t yet shown.

CBD AS AN ANTIBIOTIC

Appendino and Gibbons found CBD to be effective against several types of MRSA. This included two strains that have been prevalent in British hospitals.

When CBD proved effective in treating these unusual strains, the researchers realized that cannabinoids might work differently from conventional antibiotics.

CBG, CBN and CBC AS ANTIBIOTICS

Appendino and Gibbons also noted CBG as a promising antibiotic in their 2008 paper. Cannabinol (CBN) and cannabichromene (CBC) also look to have potential. If scientists develop a cannabis-derived antibiotic, it’s likely to have greater success if it’s non-psychoactive.

With CBD, CBG, CBN and CBC all having antibiotic effects, development of an all-encompassing cannabinoid-based antibiotic may be possible. Scientists might derive these from whole-plant extracts of hemp.

THC AS AN ANTIBIOTIC

Despite being a psychoactive cannabinoid, you won’t get high if you apply THC to the skin. Therefore, it’s wide-ranging antibiotic prospects are likely to be of great interest to mainstream science.

Studies into the antibacterial effects of THC have been under way since at least the 1970s, with a paper in 1976 demonstrating that the cannabinoid was effective against both streptococcus and staphylococcus – the latter is responsible for the notorious staph infection. In this study, THC proved most effective in concentrations of 1 to 5 micrograms per millileter. However, scientists found THC (and also CBD) were not as helpful against these gram-negative bacteria in blood, leading many to dismiss the antibiotic uses of THC. Other tests also found THC to be ineffective against various types of gram-negative bacteria.

A hospital operating room. A hospital operating room. As antibiotic-resistant bacteria become danagerously commonplace, some researchers are turning to cannabinoid antibiotics made from cannabis and hemp.

As antibiotic-resistant bacteria become danagerously commonplace, some researchers are turning to cannabinoid antibiotics made from cannabis and hemp.

More recent studies are challenging this narrative. Whole-plant cannabis sativa oil has demonstrated antibiotic efficaciousness against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E.coli, two types of gram-negative bacteria.

ROOM TO GROW IN CANNABINOID ANTIBIOTIC RESEARCH

More than anything, this revolutionary science is showing us what could be done with cannabis in the future if its properties are harnessed correctly. The emergence of CBD oil in recent times is another example of how cutting-edge science is broadening the plant’s appeal.

The research into cannabinoids as antibiotics is new and far from complete or confirmed. We are certainly not recommending using cannabis to self-medicate against antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

However, the early signs in this research are very intriguing. Cannabinoids seemingly bypass the mechanisms that other antibiotics use, and which bacteria have become wise to. If research continues in this vein, a doctor might someday prescribe cannabinoid antibiotics for you.

 

logo_leaf_dark-grey1

DISCOVER THE TOP CBD BRANDS

The market is getting saturated with many different CBD brands. We’ve compared the top brands to help you with your decision. Check it out.

1 Comment on Cannabinoid Antibiotics: How Hemp & Cannabis Could Help Fight Antibiotic Resistance

Other Cannabinoids: There’s More Than Just CBD & THC In Hemp & Cannabis

You’ve heard of CBD and THC, but how well do you know cannabinoids like CBG, CBN and THCV? In this article, we investigate 3 other cannabinoids and their potential healing benefits.

You’ve heard of CBD and THC, but how well do you know cannabinoids like CBG, CBN and THCV?

The miraculous benefits of hemp are all the rage these days! With this huge surge in popularity for CBD and all it has to offer, it seems that everyday we are now learning about new cannabinoids that also show potential health benefits.

In this article, we’re going to touch on four of those cannabinoids, their unique medicinal benefits and their full spectrum properties in both industrial hemp and marijuana.

Since cannabinoids work better synergistically, rather than individually, it’s important to take the time to learn about all the different ways the compounds in hemp and cannabis work together.

A scientist studies a hemp plant in a field. Preliminary research into other cannabinoids reveals a host of possible healing benefits to naturally occurring chemicals like THCV and CBG.

The three we’ll discuss below are CBG (cannabigerol), THCV (tetrahydrocannabivarin), and CBN (cannabinol). Keep in mind that cannabinoid research is in its preliminary stages, but what we’ve already discovered is extremely promising.

So, let’s jump in!

CANNABIGEROL (CBG)

The first up in our study of cannabinodis is CBG (cannabigerol). Like CBD, CBG does not produce a “high” like THC does.

In fact, both THC and CBD start out as cannabigerol. It’s an interesting process. Basically, cannabis plants produce cannabigerol acid. Specific enzymes in the plant then breaks down the CBGA into the the acidic form of THC and CBD (known as THCA/CBDA). Next, THC and CBD form  as the acid burns off via decarboxylation.

CBG works by increasing anandamide levels. Anandamide is an endocannabinoid, a naturally occurring cannabinoid found throughout our bodies, that helps regulate biological functions including appetite, sleep, and memory.

CBG Benefits:

  • Cannabigerol stimulates bone formation and healing. In a study published on pubmed.gov, “Age-related osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone formation and accumulation of fat in the bone marrow compartment. Here, we report that the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) regulates this process.” Results showed they could stimulate bone marrow stem cells by regulating osteoblast (bone formation) and adipocyte (fat accumulation in connective tissue) differentiation in marrow stromal cells.
  • Slows tumor growth! CBD, CBG, and CBC were all shown to slow the progression and growth of tumors and cancer cells. In a study published by cannabisinternational.org, CBG and other cannabinoids seem to have anti-proliferative/pro-apoptotic effects.
  • CBG has shown to have anti-fungal and antimicrobial properties, which make it a candidate for antifungal and antibacterial treatment. Some scientists believe CBG could be part of an effective treatment against MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus), a highly prevalent antibiotic-resistant strain of bacteria.
  • CBG is also showing promising results for treating overactive bladder, Psoriasis skin treatment, Glaucoma, depression and anxiety, and neuroprotective effects

TETRAHYDROCANNABIVARIN (THCV)

Next up is THCV (tetrahydrocannabivarin). The THCV compound makeup is very similar to the infamous THC cannabinoid, but it affects the body differently.

Both THC and THCV are psychoactive and will cause the user to get “high.” When THC binds to the body’s CB1 and CB2 receptors it activates them initiating the “high” effect. At low doses THCV also binds to those same receptors, but it does not activate them, behaving more like CBD. At higher dosages, THCV will activate the CB1 receptor much like THC and will produce a psychoative “buzz.”

Preliminary research into the various cannabinoids found in hemp and cannabis reveals that there's more to healing than just THC & CBD.

Preliminary research into the various cannabinoids found in hemp and cannabis reveals that there’s more to healing than just THC & CBD.

The feeling THCV produces seems to come on faster than THC and fades out faster as well. Users report a more clear-headed and stimulating high.

THCV Benefits, according to Leafly’s Bailey Rahn:

  • THCV may have anti-convulsive properties and can raise the seizure threshold for those with epilepsy. As a result, they experience fewer seizures.
  • Researchers are studying THCV’s ability to stimulate bone growth as a potential treatment for osteoporosis and other bone conditions.
  • THCV counteracts feelings of anxiety and shown to be effective in PTSD treatment.
  • Improves motor control, reduce tremors, and lessen the effects of brain lesions caused by Alzheimer’s disease. However it’s important to know that research is in the early stages and much more information is still needed.
  • Researchers believe THVC blocks the rewarding sensations we experience when eating, especially the unhealthy, comfort foods.

There is an informative article on THCV by Northwest Leaf called “THCV: A potent, rare and promising cannabinoid.” It’s a great read.

CANNABINOL (CBN)

The third cannabinoid to share is CBN (cannabinol). This is an interesting cannabinoid as it is produced when THC is heated or exposed to oxygen. Unlike THC, Cannabinol does not bind well to CB1 and CB2 receptors. Scientists classify CBN as non-psychoactive. CBN is not an abundant cannabinoid. The CBN content found in the cannabis plant on average will be less than 1 percent.

CBN Benefits:

  • Bone tissue growth. Studies show that CBN causes an indirect recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells that surround bone marrow. These stem cells are able to turn into bone and other tissues making it a possible candidate for healing bone fractures. The Journal of Neuroimmunology offers more information on this subject.
  • Like other cannabinoids, CBN is an anti-inflammatory cannabinoid that also has pain relief properties and preliminary research shows promise that CBN combined with CBD may prove to be an effective treatment for burns.
  • Sedative. According to a Royal Queen Seeds article, research shows that CBN can sometimes be as effective as pharmaceutical sedatives.
  • Scientists are also studying CBN as a possible sleep aid, an appetite stimulant, and as an anti-convulsive agent. CBN seems to work best symbiotically with CBD and THC.

CANNABINOIDS IN INDUSTRIAL HEMP VS PSYCHOACTIVE CANNABIS (‘MARIJUANA’)

Now that you have some knowledge of these cannabinoids, it’s important to understand how their profiles differ between industrial hemp and marijuana.

Both hemp and marijuana come from the cannabis plant, but different varieties and different growing methods differentiate high THC psychoactive cannabis (“marijuana”) from industrial low THC hemp plant. Both plants produce flower buds and both plants’ buds contain cannabinoids, but are the cannabinoids the same in both hemp and marijuana? The short answer is yes!

According to Franjo Grotenhermen, former Chairman of the International Association For Cannabinoid Medicines (2000-2003), “CBD is CBD.”

“The human body does not care where the molecule comes from,” Grotenhermen said.

A gloved scientist with a vial of CBD and a hemp leaf. 'Full spectrum' extracts contain more cannabinoids, terpenes, and other beneficial chemicals found in hemp & cannabis.

A gloved scientist with a vial of CBD and a hemp leaf. ‘Full spectrum’ extracts contain more cannabinoids, terpenes, and other beneficial chemicals found in hemp & cannabis.

Yet, there are distinct differences between the two. For example, psychoactive cannabis contains a high amount of THC, flavonoids and terpenes that hemp just doesn’t have. Marijuana also contains a higher concentration of cannabidiol than most forms of hemp.

‘FULL SPECTRUM’ MEANS MORE CANNABINOIDS, FLAVONOIDS & TERPENES

When consumers buy CBD that’s refined from industrial hemp, as in the majority of CBD products on the market today in the U.S., we always recommend purchasing a “full spectrum” extract. Full spectrum means that all of the cannabinoids, flavonoids, and terpenes found in the plant have been extracted and used in the CBD or hemp oil. Psychoactive cannabis can also be made into a “full spectrum” extract.

When a consumer ingests full spectrum oil, many scientists believe that it takes advantage of the “entourage effect.” This effect means that all cannabinoids, flavonoids, fatty acids, terpenes, and other plant compounds are working in concert with one another to maximize their benefits.

It is important to know that not everyone agrees that there is an entourage effect. According to Scientific American, “many scientists see the whole thing as a pipe dream. The idea that botanical marijuana creates synergistic chemical effect … is highly contentious.”

In general though, cannabis consumers and experts report a more satisfying, better healing experience from full spectrum products.

THC and CBD are the two most active cannabinoids in marijuana. They share a special synergy that contributes most to the entourage effect. While many people report benefits from low-THC, hemp-derived CBD extracts and full spectrum hemp oils. Others find they need the presence of THC for maximum effect.

CBD products made from hemp should be legal in all 50 states, while only portions of the U.S. currently have access to recreational or medicinal marijuana. We recommend trying everything that’s available to you to find out what works best for your needs.

THE SCIENCE OF CANNABINOIDS IS JUST GETTING STARTED

In conclusion, the study and research of cannabinoid compounds is still fairly new. While scientists have already made huge leaps forward, even bigger leaps into the cannabinoid world still await. As the United States slowly changes its cannabis laws and the popularity of CBD increases, it can only be uphill from here!

In the meantime, if you’re suffering from chronic pain, PTSD or other mental illness, or even osteoporosis, exploring other cannabinoids might offer additional relief. As with any treatment, please do your own research and consult a doctor.

 

logo_leaf_dark-grey1

DISCOVER THE TOP CBD BRANDS

The market is getting saturated with many different CBD brands. We’ve compared the top brands to help you with your decision. Check it out.

1 Comment on Other Cannabinoids: There’s More Than Just CBD & THC In Hemp & Cannabis

Type on the field below and hit Enter/Return to search