Ministry of Hemp

Ministry of Hemp

America's leading advocate for hemp

Category: Hemp Experts

Terpenes: Everything You Need to Know About These Scented Wonders

Terpenes give hemp and cannabis, along with many other plants from citrus fruits to lavender, their unique scents. They offer unique benefits too, especially paired with cannabinoids like CBD and THC.

Terpenes are natural compounds found in all forms of hemp and cannabis that give the plant its bouquet of smells.

In addition, terpenes work in concert with the better known compounds found in the plant such as the cannabinoids THC and CBD to provide their own unique health benefits.

One reason we enjoy writing about hemp is the opportunity to learn new cannabinoid science and then get to share it with our readers. We’ve said it before, but it bears repeating, there really is so much more to the cannabis plant than just CBD and THC.

Of course, both of these two cannabinoids, along with the other hundred or so cannabinoids, are instrumental in the healing and feel better properties of the cannabis plant. But increasingly researchers believe other parts of the hemp plant work synergistically with the cannabinoids to maximize the healing properties, Today’s article focuses on one of those parts: terpenes. While all forms of hemp contain terpenes, some are especially prevalent in psychoactive cannabis (“marijuana”), which we’ve noted below.

WHAT ARE TERPENES?

Cannabis isn’t the only plant that produces terpenes. According to Wikipedia, terpenes “are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers.” Terpenes give these plants their unique scents and assist plants in a variety of ways.

Terpenes attract pollenating insects for plant reproduction. They also ward off or even kill predators. They slow plant maturation and regulate metabolism. Terpenes are a major component of plants’ essential oils. Aromatherapy treatments frequently use terpenes due to their medicinal properties. Some terpenes develop because of stress to a plant, like excessive heat.

The exact number of terpenes found in the cannabis plant ranges between 100-200 depending on different variations in scientific classification.

A woman smells a lemon from her refrigerator. Limonene is a terpene that creates the unique smell of citrus fruits.

Limonene is a terpene that creates the unique smell of citrus fruits.

For example, the popular terpene limonene gives citrus fruits their unique smells. It is found in both lemons and oranges, but in different concentrations thus creating a different scent, or variations.

Here we discuss nine primary terpenes found in hemp and share the healing properties of each.

DIFFERENT TERPENES EXPLAINED

Below, we look at 9 of the most prominent terpenes: mycerne, limonene, carophyllene, pinene (Alpha/Beta), terpineol, borneol, linalool, eucalyptol, and nerolidol.

Mycerne

Mycerne is the most common terpene found in hemp. In some strains, over 60% of the essential oil is made up of mycerne. It smells very similar to cloves. Scientists consider myrcene a potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antibiotic.

Mycerne blocks cytochrome, aflatoxin B, and other pro-mutagenic carcinogens. It has a relaxing, calming, anti-spasmodic, and sedative effect. Myrcene works synergistically with THC and may also increase the psychoactive potential.

The essential oil of  citrus fruits contains high levels of myrcene. Many claim that eating a mango 45 minutes before consuming psychoactive cannabis results in a faster onset and greater intensity.

Limonene

Limonene is often the second, third or fourth terpene found in cannabis resin and produces the smell we find in citrus fruits. Like mycerne, limonene contains anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, and anti-carcinogenic properties. It is also said to protect against Aspergillus and other carcinogens found in smoke.

Even more, a cancer study from 2013 revealed that terpene reduces tumors in women with early-stage breast cancer. Limonene quickly and easily penetrates the blood barrier, which increases systolic pressure. What’s more, some experts say limonene increases attention, mental focus, well-being, and sex drive.

Citrus fruit rinds, rosemary, juniper, peppermint, and several pine needle oils all contain limonene.

Caryophyllene

Many herbs and spices contain caryophyllene. Black pepper contains high amounts, giving it that spicy flavor.

As with the previous two terpenes, caryophyllene has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-fungal properties. It has affinity for our bodies’ CB2 receptors making it a common ingredient for anti-inflammatory topicals and creams. Topical application of caryophyllene also relieves toothaches.

A cluster of peppercorns.

The terpene Caryophyllene gives black pepper its spicy scent. It also has anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory properties.

One interesting note about this terpene is its promising role in alcohol rehabilitation. In a study on mice, scientists found that caryophyllene reduces the voluntary intake of alcohol.

In addition to black pepper, Thai basils, cloves, and cinnamon leaves have caryophyllene. Lavender also produces caryophyllene in small quantities.

Pinene

Pinene, as the name implies, creates the smell associated with pine and fir trees. Doctors use pinene in medicines as an expectorant, bronchodilator, anti-inflammatory and local antiseptic. Pinene also improves concentration, personal satisfaction, and energy. Patients suffering from arthritis, Crohn’s Disease, and cancer may benefit from pinene.

A unique fact about pinene: Smoking cannabis with high levels of Pinene may give the sensation of sucking more air, which can lead to coughing or hyperventilation.

Many conifers and non-coniferous plants, balsamic resin, pinewoods, and some citrus fruits produce pinene.

Terpineol

Terpineol smells of lilacs, crabapple, blossoms, and lime blossoms. Plants with high-levels of pinene often also produce terpineol. If you’ve ever enjoyed Lapsang souchong tea, part of the flavor came from the terpineol in the pine smoke used during processing.

Terpineol creates a sedative effect often connected to indica strains of psychoactive cannabis. During tests on mice, terpineol reduced mobility by 45 percent. Experts also believe terpineol has antibiotic and antioxidant properties.

Commercial producers of terpineol often derive this terpene from Monterey cypress trees.

Borneol

Borneol smells like mint and camphor. Chinese herbalists use borneol in medicines against fatigue, stress, lingering illness.

Some researchers believe this terpene’s natural insect repellent properties and could be used against diseases caused by ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes such as West Nile Virus. One study published even show that borneol kills breast cancer cells.

Linalool

Linalool has a floral smell similar to lavender and spring flowers. It is currently being used in the treatment of various cancers.

Linalool has a calming action, antianxiety, and produces sedative effects. Linalool is responsible for the sedative effects of certain psychoactive cannabis strains. In tests on mice their activity decreased by 75%. It also has analgesic and anti-epileptic properties.

A mug of peppermint tea on a saucer, garnished with fresh mint leaves. Often found in hemp and cannabis, the mint family of plants also produces the terpene

Often found in hemp and cannabis, the mint family of plants also produces the terpene linalool.

Patients suffering from arthritis, depression, seizures, insomnia and cancer have all found relief with this terpene.

The Lamiaceae plant and herb family, which includes mints, laurels, cinnamon, rosewood, and Birch trees, all produce linalool. Linalool is a precursor in the formation of Vitamin E.

Eucalyptol

Eucalyptol is the main ingredient in eucalyptus essential oil. It has a minty smell and found in small amounts in psychoactive cannabis.

Eucalyptol relieves pain, improves concentration, and inner balance. Plants containing eucalyptol enhance meditation and concentration. It is showing promise as a treatment for Alzheimer’s, but it’s still in early stages of research.

The Eucalyptus plant, bay leaves, sage, sweet basil, and cardamom contain notable quantities of eucalyptol.

Nerolidol

Nerolidol has a unique woody and fresh bark aroma. Nerolidol contains anti-fungal, anti-cancer, and anti-malarial properties. It may prevent certain kinds of parasites.

Neroli, ginger, jasmine, lavender, and tea tree oil contain nerolidol.

UNDERSTANDING AND USING TERPENES

Again, these are just some of the most common terpenes found in hemp and cannabis. There are many more. These profiles were summarized from Alchimia and Greencamp, where you you can read more on terpenes.

After reading this article, we hope you understand how the benefits of terpenes and pair so perfectly with the benefits of CBD, and all the other cannabinoids. We hope you start incorporating them into your daily CBD regimen.

Bees pollinate from a field of lavender. If you can't find the terpenes you want in your hemp supplements, you may be able to supplement by adding other natural plants like lavender, which is high in nerolidol.

If you can’t find the terpenes you want in your hemp supplements, you may be able to supplement by adding other natural plants like lavender, which is high in nerolidol.

More and more CBD supplement companies recognize the importance of terpenes and now add different terpenes to their products to supplement those already found in hemp. Some brands even sell terpene concentrates for customers to incorporate on their own.

However, if you’re unable to find the terpenes you want through your local CBD store or online, try looking to a non-cannabis plant type or spice and simply combine with your CBD.  You might not achieve the same synergistic effect as when the terpenes are naturally present, but you should still receive the healing properties of the terpenes themselves and the healing properties of the CBD.

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Cranberry Sparkling CBD Cocktail: Celebrate With Our Fizzy CBD Drink!

Start your night off with a toast with a twist of CBD. This sparkling cocktail combines the natural terpenes of high-quality CBD oil with tart cranberry and sweet citrus.

Editor’s Note: Our sparkling CBD cocktail recipe marks our third collaboration with John Korkidis, better known as Chron Vivant. It’s also a chance for us to wish all of our readers a very Happy New Year! 

Looking for other “elevated” drinks to share on a special occasion? Try Chron Vivant CBD spiced cider or these other CBD cocktail recipes. -KO

On New Year’s I typically start my night with a glass of something sparkling. But instead of simply reaching for champagne, I like to challenge myself to be a bit more creative seeing as we are celebrating another trip around the sun.

This riff on a lower ABV (alcohol by volume) sparkling cocktail is elevated by the addition of a full-spectrum CBD tincture to help get the party started. The flavonoids and terpenoids found in most high quality CBD tinctures play well with the tart cranberry and sweet citrus notes and are easily washed down by the sparkling wine.

Elegant and perfect for any celebration, this dead simple champagne cocktail only contains a few simple ingredients and takes less than a minute to build.

A pink cocktail in a champagne glass, garnished with a lemon twist, sits atop a woven drink coaster. Nearby are lemons and a bottle of CBD. Our sparkling CBD cocktail mixes the terpenes and flavonoids of CBD oil with sweet citrus and tart cranberry for an elevated New Years.

Our sparkling CBD cocktail mixes the terpenes and flavonoids of CBD oil with sweet citrus and tart cranberry for an elevated New Years. (Photo: Ministry of Hemp / Chron Vivant)

And if you’re looking to save some money after all of your holiday shopping, you can easily substitute an Italian prosecco or Spanish cava in place of the traditional French bubbly in this recipe (you don’t need to use the good stuff when making sparkling cocktails).

Celebrate responsibly and be sure to tag your NYE cocktails: #ChronVivant #Hempgrams

RECIPE: CRANBERRY SPARKLING CBD COCKTAIL

A hand holds a pink cocktail in a champagne glass. Our fizzy CBD drink will help elevate your New Years Eve, or any special occasion!

Our fizzy CBD drink will help elevate your New Years Eve, or any special occasion! (Photo: Ministry of Hemp / Chron Vivant)

Serves: 1
Prep time: 5 min

Ingredients

  • ½ oz ​orange liqueur (Cointreau or triple sec work well)
  • ½ oz lemon juice
  • 2.5 oz ​cranberry juice
  • 2.5 oz Champagne (or any sparkling wine)
  • 3-4 drops of full spectrum CBD tincture

Garnish: Lemon twist

Preparation

  • Pre-mix the spirit and juice and chill in the refrigerator the night before serving (do not add the champagne yet).
  • When you are ready to serve, add the chilled liqueur and cranberry juice to a champagne glass or coupe.
  • Top with Champagne and add three to four drops of your favorite CBD tincture.
  • Garnish with a lemon twist and serve.
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Kit O’Connell On The 2018 Farm Bill, The FDA, & Nebraska Hemp Arrests

Ministry of Hemp Editor in Chief Kit O’Connell appeared on the CBD Talk Podcast to talk about the 2018 Farm Bill and other recent CBD news. Find CBD Talk on your favorite podcast apps!

Ministry of Hemp Editor in Chief Kit O’Connell spoke with Dawn Peacock, host of CBD Talk Podcast about recent hemp news in the U.S., including the 2018 Farm Bill. The Farm Bill, recently signed into law, fully legalizes industrial hemp in the United States.

While the Farm Bill represents a huge win for hemp advocates, there’s still more to do before hemp and CBD are fully accessible to everyone. A recent FDA statement about CBD’s legality after the Farm Bill has left people confused and concerned about the supplement’s future in the U.S. Dawn and Kit talk about what the memo really means, and why it could show the FDA is actually warming up to CBD.

In addition to the video above, this episode of CBD Talk is available as an audio file on Soundcloud:

Some of the links mentioned in the podcast:

CBD Talk is available on all your favorite podcast apps — give them a listen!

 

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Marc Grignon: Hemp Can Help Sustain Native Americans

When you begin to look into the fight for hemp legalization, you start to unearth stories you weren’t expecting to find. That’s exactly what happened when we talked with Marc Grignon and learned about the 2015 police raid on the Menominee hemp fields.

When you begin to look into the fight for hemp legalization, you start to unearth stories you weren’t expecting to find. That’s exactly what happened when we talked with Marc Grignon and learned about the 2015 police raid on the Menominee hemp fields.

Currently, Grignon is the spokesman for Hempstead Project Heart, which raises awareness about the benefits of hemp for everyone including tribal communities. Previously, he worked as  staff assistant for the Office of Native American Affairs under Obama’s Small Business Administration.

Grignon developed a passion for hemp as his tribe’s casino ambitions failed. For years now, the Menominee have been fighting for a way out of dependence on government assistance. For a way to provide their reservation with a sufficient income.

Grignon is one of the 8,700 members of the Menominee tribe of Wisconsin. Their history is believed to span back 10,000 years where they dominated 10 million acres of modern-day Wisconsin and the upper half of Michigan state.

John Trudell, wearing sunglasses, smiles at the camera. Hemp activist John Trudell co-founded Hempstead Project Heart with musician Willie Nelson, before passing leadership of the organization to Marc Grignon in his final days.

Hemp activist John Trudell co-founded Hempstead Project Heart with musician Willie Nelson, before passing leadership of the organization to Marc Grignon in his final days. (Photo: Tara Trudell, used with permission)

Despite the dramatic circumstances of the raid, Marc Grignon remains a steadfast advocate of hemp. We caught up with him recently to learn about how he got involved with hemp and how he believes hemp can help support Native American tribes.

OVER TIME, TRIBAL ATTITUDES TOWARD HEMP HAVE SOFTENED

It was during Grignon’s final semester at college when he began to look into his tribe’s background — studying the language and digging deep into their culture. As he went about this research, a piece of information “fell into my lap,” he told us.

The Menominee have a word called “Shaeqnap” and it means wild hemp. The definition talked about a plant that could grow anywhere from 5 to 8 feet high. The tribe used it for fiber, basket making, bowstrings, and so on and so forth.

Grignon was so fascinated by the discovery, he brought it to the Menominee Language and Culture Commission. They were less enthusiastic about his discovery. When he asked about shaeqnap, they simply insisted, “No. We never used cannabis.”

This was a bit of a blow to Grignon as he’s been a long-time hemp advocate. His goal has been to use the plant to provide the Menominee people with a stable source of income. Though not everyone agreed with this idea, Grignon held a determination which would prove to be worthwhile.

And over time, he said attitudes are shifting. “With the evidence we’ve brought to light, more Menominee cultural people see our future in hemp.”

PLANTING THE SEEDS: HOW MARC GRIGNON GREW HEMP WITH THE MENOMINEE

In the summer of 2015, Grignon was working on an Agricultural and Research Project through the College of Menominee Nation and his tribe. One particular day, a former legislature approached him and asked if he’d be interested in working with hemp. Since the Menominee had just passed a law allowing for the reservation to grow industrial hemp for the sake of research, Grignon was very interested.

Part of the reason for this law was due to the fact the Menominees were trying to get the legal paperwork to start a casino. They fought for twenty years only to have Scott Walker, Wisconsin’s governor at the time, kill the idea.

Grignon saw hemp as holding the possibility of being a “natural economic drive.” He recalled:

“So, I was brought on. We planted on July 7th, 2015. 3 acres. I was kind of in charge of monitoring the plants and taking care of them. I was on weed control and I’d go into the fields and pull them out by hand with other Menominees. That’s how I got into the whole thing.”

MENOMINEE HEMP FACED CONSTANT THREATS FROM LAW ENFORCEMENT

The Menominees took all legal precaution prior in order to make this happen. They informed law enforcement of their laws and the fact that they had plans to grow that cultivation season. However, upon hearing this, the feds felt the need to come out and see the fields.

“There were some strong words between the attorney and my tribal leaders,” Grignon remembers.

“The feds were like, ‘we want you to uproot this stuff.’ And we said, ‘No, man. We abided by our government to government relations where we told you we were gonna do it, we passed the law, we had our community’s input on this law, nobody has an issue with it, and now we’re gonna move forward with it.’”

A densely packed hemp field grows tall under a partly cloudy sky, a forest in the background of the field. Marc Grignon helped legalize hemp in Wisconsin after police raided a Menominee hemp field in 2015.

Marc Grignon helped legalize hemp in Wisconsin after police raided a Menominee hemp field in October 2015. (Photo: Marc Grignon)

Which is just what Grignon did. Nearly three months went by. He and the Menominees continued tending their 3 acres of hemp. Throughout this time, law enforcement sustained their efforts to stop the tribe from cultivating these crops.

OCTOBER 23, 2015: POLICE RAID MENOMINEE HEMP FIELDS

In fact, the tribe had a strong suspicion that they would be raided. Even though they followed all rules and regulations, Grignon says, “It’s a real cluster-fuck when it comes to federal Indian policy and federal Indian laws.”

On October 23rd, just when everything was in full bloom, Grignon drove to the fields to find police dressed in camo, fully armed with automatic weapons. He stood and watched as a bulldozer destroyed all his hard work.

Not only was this a giant blow to the operation, but it was an even bigger blow for the next season’s grow. For those plants contained the seeds the Menominees hoped to plant the following year.

Though Grignon was deeply upset, he wasn’t discouraged. In fact, in the months prior — when the Menominees were anticipating the raid — Grignon had reached out to an activist that would not only change his life but hemp’s future in the state of Wisconsin.

MARC GRIGNON’S HEMP ADVOCACY CONTINUES AFTER MENOMINEE HEMP RAID

This certain someone was John Trudell, a Native American author and political activist. Grignon reached out to Trudell in hopes of saving his 2015 harvest. Less than two weeks after feds destroyed it, he received a call from Hempstead Project Heart in which they wanted to carry out an education campaign.

When Trudell found out about the feds destroying the Menominee’s fields, he was very upset.

“He wanted to set up a legal defense fund and do whatever in his power to help us,” Grignon said. “And we took his help. But two weeks later, his cancer spread and he was taken into hospice.”

Grignon had gotten a phone call explaining this and how Trudell wanted to hire him onto Hempstead Project. Being that Trudell had been an idol of Grignon for most of his life, he felt the need to meet the man. Purely for the sake of discovering what the future held for both hemp and Native American culture.

“I flew out there and met him and he basically told me my reputation was on the line,” Grignon explains.

“When we talk about how screwed Indian country is and how dependent we are on the government, I look at hemp and I see a solution.”

“[He said] if I couldn’t get hemp legal in Wisconsin within a year then I wasn’t the person I say I am … everyone will tell you he’s the most intense individual you’ll ever speak to. And they’re absolutely correct.”

Trudell’s perspective on hemp was that “it couldn’t save us, but it could help us.”

Grignon admits he wasn’t able to make Trudell’s wish come true alone nor within a year. However, with the help of a coalition, he made hemp legal in Wisconsin.

CAN HEMP HELP BRING PROSPERITY TO INDIAN COUNTRY?

During Grignon’s time as a staff assistant for the Obama administratio, he saw many real problems he hopes to solve with hemp. This was during one of the previous times the government didn’t sustain proper funding and, in turn, partially shut down for a period of time.

Grignon saw how this affected Native American tribes who weren’t making big bucks off casinos. He knew those tribes depended on government grants. Not only does Grignon not agree with this, but it frightens him to think the Menominees can lose the ability to finance themselves whenever the government shuts down.

Grignon sees hemp as a way for the Menominees to financially sustain themselves. As a source of sustainable profit which may just bring the tribe back to their original roots.

“When we talk about how screwed Indian country is and how dependent we are on the government, I look at hemp and I see a solution.”

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Recipe: Homemade CBD Hot Cocoa To Soothe Away Holiday Stress

Nothing is more comforting than a cup of hot cocoa and nothing quite hugs the soul like CBD oil. So, there may be no better way to spend a cold winter’s day than snuggled up to a crackling fire with with a mug full of CBD hot cocoa.

Editor’s Note: This CBD hot cocoa recipe is our second collaboration with John Korkidis, better known as Chron Vivant. Don’t miss his CBD spiced cider recipe and our other CBD cocktails and non-alcoholic CBD drinks. -KO

Nothing is more comforting than a cup of hot cocoa and nothing quite hugs the soul like a broad spectrum of cannabinoids. So, there may be no better way to spend a cold winter’s day than snuggled up to a crackling fire with with a mug full of CBD hot cocoa. And if you don’t have a fireplace, this recipe will make you feel like you do.

Hemp-derived cannabinoids and terpenes enhance the spices and bitter chocolate notes. Plus, the added fat of the milk and whipped cream helps increase the bioavailability of the drink.

A mug of hot chocolate with whip cream, with a Christmas tree in the background. Our CBD hot cocoa recipe will warm you up and soothe away the stress of chasing the perfect gifts.

Our CBD hot cocoa recipe will warm you up and soothe away the stress of chasing the perfect gifts. (Photo: Ministry of Hemp / Chron Vivant)

Fun Fact: The first chocolate beverage is believed to have been created by the Mayan peoples around 2000 years ago, and much like cannabis, the cocoa beverage was an essential part of Aztec culture. I wonder if they ever mixed the two?

RECIPE: CBD HOT COCOA

Serves: 1
Prep time: 5 min

Ingredients

  • 1 oz dark chocolate
  • 1 tablespoon unsweetened cocoa powder
  • 1 cup whole organic milk
  • 2 tablespoons organic granulated sugar (optional)
  • 1 pinch of cinnamon
  • 1 pinch sea salt
  • 2-3 drops of full spectrum CBD tincture

Garnish: Whipped cream or marshmallows and a candy cane

A mug of CBD hot cocoa garnished with whipped cream and candy cane pieces. The mug sits on a woven coaster with another candy cane.

(Photo: Ministry of Hemp / Chron Vivant)

Preparation

  • In a small saucepan, mix the chocolate, cocoa powder and 1/2 cup of milk over low heat.
  • Stir continuously until the chocolate is completely melted. Add the remaining milk, a dash of cinnamon, and a dash of sea salt.
  • Stir in organic sugar to taste and add a few drops of the CBD tincture of your choice.
  • Pour CBD hot cocoa into your favorite mug and top with whipped cream or marshmallows.
  • Take a candy cane and place in a ziplock bag. Gently crush the candy cane with a mallet or similar object and sprinkle the remaining candy cane bits on top of your whipped cream or marshmallows.
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Bees Love Hemp: 23 Species Of Bees Attracted To Colorado Hemp

With bee populations dwindling worldwide, hemp presents a tantalizing possibility. A graduate student studied bees in a University of Colorado hemp field, and the results are intriguing.

Preliminary research suggests bees love hemp, creating the potential that hemp could help save the bees.

According to Greenpeace, there’s been an alarming decline in bee populations since the 1990s. The main causes seem to be bee-killing pesticides often used for industrial agriculture. Though there’s lots of speculation on how to solve the issue, a recent study has found that hemp might offer a prominent source of pollen for bees.

Colton O’Brien, an entomology student at Colorado State University’s Graduate School, got involved with two experimental hemp plots. O’Brien was lucky enough to have access to the fields during the first year’s experiments as they were originally kept in secret.

He recalled the first time he stepped onto the university’s hemp fields, he became overwhelmed by “lots and lots of buzzing.”

STUDYING BEES AND HEMP

A lightbulb struck within O’Brien as he became aware that bees were using hemp, that they “find it attractive.” What O’Brien wanted to know was how hemp fields contributed to the ecosystems of these bees.

A closeup of a swarm of dozens of honeybees. Do bees love hemp? Preliminary research found 23 different bee species were attracted to Colorado hemp fields.

Do bees love hemp? Preliminary research found 23 different bee species were attracted to Colorado hemp fields.

“I had asked if I could set up a couple of traps while [the hemp] was in full bloom,” O’Brien tells us, in regards to the second year of these experimental plots. “And I happened to know a couple of folks in the hemp lab and they said sure.”

Since O’Brien works out of a Pollination Biology lab at his university, his main interest for these traps was finding out what bees are attracted to the pollen given off by hemp.

With the traps, they were able to confirm that the bees were collecting pollen from hemp. This is vital as it’s been determined without pollinators like bees, much of the world’s food supply is at risk. In fact, without bees pollinating in general, about one-third of the food we know today would vanish.

THESE BEES LOVE HEMP: 23 OF 66 COLORADO BEE SPECIES ATTRACTED TO HEMP

Colorado is home to 66 unique bee species. O’Brien found that 23 of these 66 gravitated towards the hemp fields and fell into his trap. Though he can’t be certain, O’Brien believes these are the first experiments studying bees within a cannabis field.

“We found bees not only utilizing the pollen, but we also found parasites of certain bees,” O’Brien explains. “Like parasites of digger bees and sunflower bees. And even though they might not have been taken pollen directly from hemp, they were utilizing what the other bees were bringing in.”

O’Brien makes it clear he believes the hemp fields created “the dynamics of an ecosystem” which might not have existed without the cannabis plant.

A close up photo of bees crawling on honeycomb. Many questions remain about how bees and hemp interact, including whether the plant's naturally occurring chemical compounds, or cannabinoids, have any effect on the insects.

Many questions remain about how bees and hemp interact, including whether the plant’s naturally occurring chemical compounds, or cannabinoids, have any effect on the insects.

There still isn’t enough research to be certain as to what hemp pollen does for bees. For example, we don’t yet know whether hemp pollen will be a good source of nutrients to bee larva. All O’Brien can confirm is there weren’t many other plants within the area of these hemp plots producing pollen.

BEES LOVE HEMP, BUT RESEARCH IS JUST BEGINNING

Upon reaching out to O’Brien, he informed us his manuscript was still undergoing a review process. Due to this, he wasn’t able to share all the results he believes he may have found. However, he also admits this was a very baseline experiment.

“I think there’s a lot of questions that have opened up from this. Like, what is potentially the nutritional value of hemp pollen to bees? I understand hemp only contains 0.3% THC, but how does that affect a tiny, tiny organism? Is it the same standard?”

The cannabis plant contains dozens of naturally occurring compounds, or cannabinoids, many of which seem to have distinct effects on humans (and potentially bees as well).

Starting with these questions, O’Brien hopes to conduct more studies on the matter during the 2019 cultivation season. He also hopes that crop scientists creating pest-control strategies for hemp will keep the safety of bees in mind.

With all this in mind, it’s clear there’s still a lot to learn about hemp and its potential environmental benefits.

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Full Traceability — From Seed to Shelf™: The Key to Finding the Best Hemp CBD Product

In order to live a balanced lifestyle, we know it’s important to exercise, eat a healthy diet, and take quality supplements. We should expect the highest standards from hemp CBD supplements, which means full traceability from seed to shelf, with care at every stage of the process.

In order to live a balanced lifestyle, we know it’s important to exercise, eat a healthy diet, and take quality supplements.

Part of the appeal of shopping at a farmer’s market is the luxury of following our produce from farm to table. Wouldn’t it be nice to have that assurance for all of the supplements we take? These days, with growing popularity around hemp CBD, many new CBD brands are launching daily. It can be difficult to find one that you can trust. So, what is there to know before choosing a hemp CBD supplement?

Photo shows someone's hand with a handful of hemp seeds pulled from a sack of seeds. Full traceability starts with certified agricultural hemp seeds that can be traced back to the source.

Full traceability starts with certified agricultural hemp seeds that can be traced back to the source. (Photo: © CV Sciences™)

We’ve got the answer for you: Find a company dedicated to full-traceability, from seed to shelf.

FULL TRACEABILITY OF CBD — FROM START TO FINISH

A fully traceable company must be involved in every step of the manufacturing and supply chain process. A fully traceable company should be able to provide information on a specific process or component of their product, given that information is not proprietary. This transparency is exactly what is needed from hemp CBD companies.

It is no secret that CBD can be obtained from more than one source aside from agricultural hemp, such as high-THC recreational or medicinal cannabis. While the body does not recognize the difference between CBD from hemp or CBD from psychoactive cannabis (“marijuana”), not knowing the source of a product, how it was made, or the levels of the other cannabinoids could make a huge difference if the products are not formulated properly. Being able to track and trace the source of hemp CBD supplements can be empowering and give peace of mind.

GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES (GMP) AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT

While tracking the source and controlling manufacturing process are important for transparency, having quality systems in place really shows that the brand is dedicated to quality, safety, and consistency.

A densely backed hemp field under a partly cloudy blue sky, with rolling hills in the background. While hemp cultivation requires little to no pesticides, always ask for test results.

While hemp cultivation requires little to no pesticides, always ask for test results. (Photo: © CV Sciences™)

Part of this commitment means following guidelines for Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). Brands should test their product for cannabinoid content and contamination. Without test results, there is no way to know if the CBD levels match the claim on the label or if the THC levels are too high (pun intended). This mistake would be like drinking green tea and finding out later it was green colored water containing the equivalent of 5 shots of espresso.

So what can we do to ensure we’re getting CBD? ALWAYS ASK FOR TEST RESULTS.

There are very few companies that have proper quality systems in place and their own in-house laboratory to test their products. At the very least, all hemp CBD companies should have their products tested by an independent third-party laboratory for all cannabinoids (not just CBD and THC), pesticides, heavy metals, and molds and bacteria. In Indiana, a CBD company cannot even sell products in the state without visible test results. Looking for a company to trust? Ask them for the certificates of analysis (COAs) for their products. Bonus if their quality management provides in-house test results, too!

FULL TRANSPARENCY FROM THE FARM TO THE LABEL

The hemp can be traced back. Check. The test results are available. Check. Now, does the product list CBD on the label, and if so, does it match the COA?

The final component of a fully-traceable product is checking product labeling. Make the label clearly lists CBD content and make sure that information matches their lab tests. Responsible communication about the products and what’s in them should be paramount for all CBD companies. If the label reads 10mg of hemp CBD per 1 capsule, the test results should reflect that same amount.

Photo shows a collection of hemp plants in pots waiting to go in the ground. Full traceability means responsible communication about hemp CBD products and where they come from.

Full traceability means responsible communication about hemp CBD products and where they come from. (Photo: © CV Sciences™)

Following a hemp CBD supplement from the moment the hemp is planted in the ground to when it is placed in our hands is not a luxury, it’s a necessity. Our bodies are the best instrument we’ll ever own and it is time to take control of our health. Start a healthy life by not only demanding fully-traceable hemp CBD products but transparency for all things our body needs to promote wellness.

 

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CBD Vape Oil For Pain, Anxiety, & More: Why Do People Vape CBD?

Although CBD can be taken in many forms, more and more people are choosing CBD vape oil as their preferred form of cannabidiol. Thanks to fast absorption, vaping CBD may be ideal for fast relief of anxiety, stress, and chronic pain.

More and more people are using CBD vape oil thanks to its convenience and fast acting effects

Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of over 100 cannabinoids found in hemp and marijuana plants. Unlike the mind-altering THC, the cannabinoid associated with marijuana, CBD does not have the ability to make a user high. The hemp and CBD industry have seen immense growth over the last decade due to countless studies that suggest cannabidiol may provide various health benefits.

A person vapes CBD while waiting at a suburban bus stop, wearing headphones, jeans and a hoodie. Due to it's absorption rate, CBD vape oil is a fast, easy way to get relief from numerous troubling symptoms. (Photo: Medix CBD)

Due to its rapid absorption rate, CBD vape oil is a fast, easy way to get relief from numerous troubling symptoms. (Photo: Medix CBD)

CBD may also help with conditions such as anxiety, pain, inflammation, insomnia, and epilepsy. With thousands of CBD consumers praising its effects and a growing body of scientific evidence in support of its safety, even many medical professionals are now recommending CBD. Although CBD can be taken in many forms, more and more people are choosing CBD vape oil as their preferred form of cannabidiol.

Vaping CBD is easy, allows for fast absorption, and is a relaxing experience.

CBD VAPE OIL PROVIDES IMMEDIATE RELIEF

In comparison to cannabidiol oils and gummies, CBD vape oil has a faster absorption rate because the CBD reaches the bloodstream through the lungs instead of having to go through the digestive system. Because of this, it is common for vapers to instantly feel the therapeutic effects of the CBD.

This quick absorption rate is ideal for people that suffer from:

  • Anxiety
  • Stress
  • Reoccurring Pain
A person holds a CBD battery and a package holding a CBD vape cartridge. CBD vape oil is a convenient, fast-acting form of cannabidiol that you can use almost anywhere.

CBD vape oil is a convenient, fast-acting form of cannabidiol that you can use almost anywhere. (Photo: Medix CBD)

Some studies also indicate that inhaling CBD can have higher bioavailability as opposed to other methods of consumption.

CBD VAPE OIL ALLOWS FOR CUSTOMIZED DOSING

Certain CBD products such as gummies and capsules contain pre-measured doses of cannabidiol. CBD vape oil provides a way to customize your dosing to your specific needs. You can add your ideal amount of CBD oil to vape juice and create your own CBD vape juice. Mixing CBD oil with your favorite e-liquid is also a tasty way to enjoy your CBD vaping experience.

A person taking a CBD cartridge out of the packaging. Using a CBD vape makes it easy to customize your dosing.

Using a CBD vape makes it easy to customize your dosing. (Photo: Medix CBD)

CBD Vape Oil is also widely available in customized cartridges in a variety of flavors or designed to enhance certain moods. Companies like Medix CBD offer several “mood” cartridges to create the CBD experience you desire. They are available in different dosage amounts as well, so you can always choose how much CBD you want to intake. Medix “Mood” cartridges are also compatible with most vaping devices. Nowadays, vape cartridges are standardized, so you can find a battery you like and use it with almost any brand.

CBD VAPE OIL IS RELAXING

Nothing beats relaxing after a long productive day of work or play. Whether your ideal way of relaxing is reading, napping, or doing homework, CBD can promote focus and balance through its unique effects on the human body. CBD vapers can take a few puffs to help them concentrate, wind down, or have a good night’s sleep. The choice is yours!

A woman uses a vape while working on a laptop at a desk. Tailored CBD vape blends can help promote relaxation, focus, and even sleep.

Tailored CBD vape blends can help promote relaxation, focus, and even sleep. (Photo: Medix CBD)

Rather than artificial flavoring, many modern CBD vape cartridges are flavored with terpenes, which are the main building blocks of essential oils found in hemp plants. They contribute to the aroma, flavors, and even the effects of the plant. The terpenes selected in each respective cartridge can help you curate your experience, whether you want to fall asleep or feel energized.

CBD VAPE OIL IS CONVENIENT & DISCREET

CBD is now used by millions of people in the United States to help them with health conditions or for preventative care. Although it is common to for people to take CBD while at work or in public, some people feel uncomfortable using capsules and tinctures around other people.

A woman leaning against a brick wall exhales after taking CBD vape oil.

Thanks to the widespread use of e-cigs, you won’t look out of place while vaping CBD.

Thanks to the widespread use of e-cigarettes, Vaping CBD is an effective way to use CBD in a discreetly. By not having to carry sublingual tinctures or capsules, you can easily take your dosage of cannabidiol almost anytime and anywhere. Studies have also shown that people who use CBD vape oil are more likely to quit smoking and become less dependent on nicotine.

THE VERDICT: WE THINK EVERYONE SHOULD TRY CBD

There is no wrong method for consuming CBD oil. No matter how you choose to use CBD, almost anyone can benefit from its healing properties. If you are someone that is constantly on the go and wants to focus, relax, or sleep better, the choice is clear. Give CBD a try — and let us know what works best for you!

 

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Full Spectrum CBD VS. CBD Isolate: Which CBD Should I Take?

This article breaks down two common terms used to describe CBD products: full spectrum and CBD isolate. While some preliminary research suggests full spectrum CBD is better, CBD isolate still has many uses.

This article breaks down two common terms used to describe CBD products: full spectrum and CBD isolate.

The cannabis industry is one of the most exciting and fastest growing in the natural health sector. With laws around the world relaxing on the plant and its commercial uses, we’ve seen some incredible new hemp products come to market.

The most popular of them all at the moment is cannabidiol oil, or more commonly known as CBD oil. With so many new and different CBD oil products available, the choice of which one to go with can be difficult and confusing. With terms like whole plant extract, full spectrum, broad spectrum and isolate. This article will break down the difference between two terms you’ll commonly see, full spectrum CBD oil and CBD oil isolate, in order to help make your decisions easier.

A row of identical looking bottles of CBD oil, each with a dropper top. Not all CBD oil is made the same, and the terminology can be confusing, such as the difference between full spectrum CBD and CBD isolate.

Not all CBD oil is made the same, and the terminology can be confusing, such as the difference between full spectrum CBD and CBD isolate.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-intoxicating molecule found in the cannabis plant. It is one of many cannabinoids that can be extracted from the cannabis plant but it has become commercially popular beyond the others due to its wide medical applications and accessibility. As CBD does not give the consumer the famous high that psychoactive cannabis (“marijuana”) is known for, it is more readily available online and in shops. It is usually derived from hemp, the name given to cannabis plants with less than 0.3% THC which can be mass grown for CBD oil.

WHAT IS FULL SPECTRUM CBD OIL?

The cannabis plant contains hundreds of different phytochemicals including cannabinoids, terpenes, and other compounds. Full spectrum CBD or hemp oil generally refers to products that not only contain CBD but contain the other plant molecules as well. This version of CBD oil is minimally refined, leaving most of the cannabinoids and terpenes intact and in the oil.

Full spectrum, sometimes also called “whole plant,” means the full plant extract is included. Full spectrum provides more of the plant’s molecules in ratios and amounts that nature intended.

While there is still more research to be done, there are indications that show cannabinoids and terpenes work together to influence each other. This synergistic effect is called the entourage effect and has seen CBD work with THC to reduce the effects of a high and CBD to influence ones own cannabinoid receptors.

WHAT IS CBD ISOLATE?

Cannabidiol alone has been the subject of a lot of research as it stands out from the rest with what seems to be the widest therapeutic value.

CBD isolate products are generally labeled as being 99 percent or more pure CBD depending on the form they come in. As the name suggests, these products have been isolated down to just the CBD molecule. They have no other active ingredient and just aim to deliver therapeutic doses of CBD, isolated from the other cannabinoids and terpenes.

CBD isolate products often come as a white powder or a mix with a carrier oil such as MCT oil for improved absorption.

COMPARING FULL SPECTRUM CBD VS CBD ISOLATE

CBD and the other cannabinoids have therapeutic benefits to humans thanks to our endocannabinoid system, a series of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) throughout the entire body. These receptors react to the cannabinoids our bodies produce which are molecularly very similar to the cannabinoids from cannabis and hemp.

Two different colored vials of hemp extract sit on a bed of hemp leaves. Full spectrum CBD contains more cannabinoids and other natural compounds, while CBD isolate may be better for people who need a strong dose of just cannabidiol.

Full spectrum CBD contains more cannabinoids and other natural compounds, while CBD isolate may be better for people who need a strong dose of just cannabidiol.

Full spectrum CBD oil products have the advantage of containing many different cannabinoids and terpenes and the potential for a wider health reach. A recent study indicated the synergistic effects of a full spectrum CBD oil were superior to an isolate in the effective treatment of inflammatory conditions. Terpenes alone have shown incredible potential for human health and should not be disregarded.

CBD isolates do allow users to easily get large amounts of CBD and know how much they’re getting. With the growing amount of evidence behind CBD and CBD alone it should definitely not be overlooked as a potential for so many conditions such as anxiety, pain, inflammation, diabetes, depression and more.

Some people find the taste of hemp extract unpleasant, which may mean they should try a CBD isolate (or another method of taking CBD such as CBD capsules or gummies). The lack of flavor might also make isolate a better choice for cooking with CBD or mixing into some CBD cocktails. CBD isolate powder can also be an appealing option for making CBD products for personal use, such as homemade CBD massage oil.

Isolates can sometimes be more expensive than full spectrum CBD. Isolates undergo more extensive refinement and require more plant matter in order to get high levels of isolated cannabidiol.

GET TO KNOW DIFFERENT CBD PRODUCTS

It’s hard to know which one is best for you without trying them both and see how you react. Different ailments might react differently a full spectrum CBD than to a CBD isolate. We recommend trying a variety of products and assessing how you feel. If you’re finding your condition is not reacting significantly to a full spectrum oil then trying an isolate may be the way to go, and vice versa.

Bottles and a beaker containing amber colored CBD oil arranged with hemp buds, sitting on a reflective tabletop surface. Some research suggests full spectrum CBD can be more effective, but consumers should experiment with a variety of CBD products. Some research suggests full spectrum CBD can be more effective, but consumers should experiment with a variety of CBD products and, when possible, consult with a supportive medical professional for more advice.

Some research suggests full spectrum CBD can be more effective, but consumers should experiment with a variety of CBD products and, when possible, consult with a supportive medical professional for more advice.

It’s still very early in the days of cannabis research but there is a strong case for the therapeutic benefit of a less refined full spectrum hemp extract with more of the plant compounds intact. There are so many beneficial health possibilities waiting to be unlocked by further studying the combinations of these compounds found in hemp and cannabis.

Remember, it’s not all about the amount of CBD per serving you see on a bottle. A higher CBD product isn’t necessarily superior to a full spectrum oil. Leaving the plants extracts closer to the way nature intended could be a better option for most people.

 

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CBD Mulled Apple Cider: Warm Up & Slow Down During Busy Holidays

We’re excited to introduce Ministry of Hemp readers to Chron Vivant and share his delicious CBD mulled apple cider recipe. We thought we’d start with a brief Q&A about his work and the art of hemp-infused cocktails.

We’re excited to introduce Ministry of Hemp readers to Chron Vivant and share his delicious CBD mulled apple cider recipe. We thought we’d start with a brief Q&A about his work and the art of hemp-infused cocktails. -Kit

A Q&A WITH CHRON VIVANT

Kit O’Connell, Editor in Chief at Ministry of Hemp: How did you get into making elevated cocktails? Was there a steep learning curve?

John Korkidis, a.k.a. @ChronVivant: Little known fact: I spent most of my 20’s living and working in China as a creative. During my time there I cut my teeth in various agency roles and had the honor of working closely with artists like Ai Weiwei in his Beijing studio.

I actually gained my appreciation for mixology during my time in China. I had a few friends who opened up some of the first cocktail bars in Beijing. They are the ones I credit for acquainting me with properly constructed classics and riffs. Also, because of proximity, Beijing had some fantastic Japanese whiskey bars where I gained a true appreciation for quality spirits, attentive service, custom hand-carved ice, and technique-driven mixology programs.

A bundle of cinnamon sticks in a ribbon sits next to a clove orange. Cinnamon sticks and a clove orange help enhance the warm apple and hemp flavors of our CBD mulled apple cider.

Cinnamon sticks and a clove orange help enhance the warm apple and hemp flavors of our CBD mulled apple cider.

When I first got to San Francisco, I found this type of experience and quality execution surprisingly lacking. (These days, though, the drink scene has definitely caught up). In addition, I wasn’t used to paying $16 for a classic cocktail that was not properly executed, so I started to experiment with building the base of my favorite drinks at home.

I focus on education and do my best to make things approachable for home chefs, apartment bartenders, and expert mixologists alike. Like anything in life, practice makes perfect. But getting started is not as hard as one might think.

MoH: What are some of your recipes you make most?

CV: Typically the drinks I feature are more mood enhancing than medicinal. However, I provide basic education and best practices for making all sorts of infusions. So depending on one’s particular needs, responsible adults (in legal states) have the ability to manufacture quality products affordably in their own home and use them how they see fit.

The recipes I make the most leverage CBD and act to enhance relaxation. I love classic cocktails like old-fashioneds but I’m also a sucker for an egg white sour, so these are the drinks I make most at home.

I personally have found that micro-dosing cannabinoids works for me. But in regards to traditional cocktails and mocktails, it’s common to have more than one. So it’s important that when creating recipes, dosing takes that into account. Also, I look at cannabis as just another ingredient and never try to make it the focal point. As you know, it’s important to get the balance right; it takes complex flavors and ingredients coming together to make a great drink. And it’s no different when making a canna-beverage.

MOH: What do you think people need to know about CBD drinks & cocktails? Any common misconceptions?

CV: Definitely lot’s of common misconceptions. When people hear cannabis cocktail often they assume that these drinks are going to get you high. To avoid any negative synergistic effects, I never recommend combining psychoactive cannabis with alcohol.

Chron Vivant is all about promoting responsible consumption and typically creates recipes that feature either CBD cocktails (low ABV) or non-alcoholic THC drink alternatives (no ABV).

An antique "Hot Apple Cider" sign, shaped like an apple, painted on a wooden fence. Our hot CBD mulled apple cider will enhance those autumn vibes and help you relax during the busy holiday season.

Our hot CBD mulled apple cider will enhance those autumn vibes and help you relax during the busy holiday season.

Another thing for people to keep in mind is that everyone responds differently to ingesting cannabis. Even experienced users should exercise caution when consuming medicated infusions and follow the golden rule of ”going slow and keeping the dosage low.”

ENHANCE THE AUTUMN VIBES WITH CBD MULLED APPLE CIDER

We are already a month into fall and that means the holiday season is fast approaching.

It seems that once Halloween arrives, time speeds up and New Year’s Eve is here before we know it – a phenomenon known by some as Hallowthanksmas.

I find a good way to slow things down is to break up my daily routine and take a moment to catch my breath and reflect with a fall-themed CBD cocktail or non-alcoholic CBD beverage.

Croptober is one of my favorite times of year for ingredients. It’s period of transition, when the colors are still changing, the weather is shifting, and savory fruits and warm spices flood local markets.

As soon as I start to see apples, persimmons, and pumpkins popping up, that’s when I get the signal that the change in seasons truly is here and I know it’s time to make a batch of my signature mulled apple cider.

This easy-to-make, and even easier-to-drink, beverage is perfect for warming up the soul and makes an excellent batch concoction for your next seasonal party.

The addition of CBD is sure to comfort the body and relax the mind. And since CBD is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, you won’t need to worry worry about experiencing any negative synergistic effects when combined with alcohol. But of course, this fall-themed CBD cocktail can easily become a non-alcoholic mocktail by simply negating the booze.

A decanter of bourbon sits on a platter with a bottle of tincture, apples, cloves, and a glass of cider decorated with a cinnamon stick. Chron Vivant's CBD Mulled Apple Cider will warm you up and help relieve the stress of the holidays.SPIKED CBD MULLED APPLE CIDER RECIPE

Yield:

  • 8-10 servings

Equipment:

  • Large pot or slow cooker
  • Ladle

Prep time:

  • 10 minutes

Cook time:

  • 2.5 hours

Total:

  • 2-3 hours

Ingredients:

  • 2 quarts organic apple cider
  • 5 cinnamon sticks (plus more for garnishes)
  • 1 large organic orange
  • 2 tablespoons whole cloves
  • Bourbon or rum of your choice (optional)
  • CBD tincture (see our choices for top CBD brands)

Preparation:

  • Add organic apple cider into a large pot or slow cooker
  • Place whole cinnamon sticks into the liquid
  • Embed cloves into the rind of an orange and place orange into the cider
  • Cook on low until the spices really start to come through and the cider is hot (about 2.5-3 hours)

Serving:

  • Carefully ladle cider directly from your pot or slow cooker into heat resistant cups
  • Add one ounce of bourbon or rum (optional)
  • Add 3-4 drops of your favorite CBD tincture
  • Place a cinnamon stick in each glass to garnish and serve

 

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